Frequently Asked Questions

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FAQ on Animal Science

Q: My cow gives only half liter to one liter milk daily. How can I increase the milk production?

A: you are rearing only local cows with poor milk production. To get more milk production breeds like Holstein Friesian (H.F) and Jersey cows can be reared which will produce 10-15 lits of milk daily. But you should provide them sufficient amount of concentrate feed, mineral mixture and green fodders.

Q: Where from we will get these breeds? These are very costly?

A: You can improve your local cows by doing Artificial Insemination (A.I.). In A.I., semen from H.F. and Jersey bulls is used and thus farmers can get an H.F./Jersey calf. Semen Straws are provided by the ICDP unit situated in every district. For A.I., farmers can contact to the nearest vety. Dispensary. In West Garo Hills farmers can get Semen straw from Ganol ICDP/ Vety dispensary at the cost of Rs15 per straw.

Q: How will I do A.I. and when?

A: To do A.I. first you have to detect your cow in heat. The best time of A.I. is within 10-12 hours (local cow) and 12-18hrs (H.F./Jersey) of heat. When the cow comes into heat in the morning A.I. should be done in the evening and if it comes in the evening it should be done in the next day morning. Be sure that the person doing the A.I. is expert one.

Q: How much feed and fodder should be given to a milk producing cow?

A:- A milking cow should be given 2.5 to 3 kg of concentrate feed plus 0.250kg per lit of milk produced along with 40kg of green fodder and 4kg of dry roughage daily.

Q: What type of fodders can be given to the cows?

A: Different types of fodder grasses like Napier, para, guinea, congosignal, stylo and fodder trees like subabul, bauhinia can be given to your cows. Farmers of West Garo Hills can take the planting materials from our KVK and also can attend the training programme to get knowledge about plantation technique.

Q: There is scarcity of fodder during winter. How can we store fodders for winter?

A:-Scarcity of fodder occurs mainly during October to April. Fodder which is abundantly available during rainy season can be stored as hay and silage. Silage can be prepared by different methods. If requirement is less it can be made in polythene bags or if requirement is huge or required in large quantity, it can be prepared in pits or bunkers. The best method is the use of polythene bags as it is cheap and can be kept in any vacant room for storage.

Q: In our village many cows die in every year due to wound in the hooves and mouth causing severe loss to us?

A: The death occurs due to the Foot and Mouth disease (FMD) caused by virus. The disease is highly contagious and has no specific treatment. Regular vaccination is the only way to reduce the incidence. Vaccination can be done at 6months to 1 year interval depending upon the prevalence of the disease. You should also vaccinate your cattle against the other two diseases i.e. Hemorrhagic septicemia and Black quarter. Vaccination is done by the state veterinary dept. at free of cost.

Q: My calf is very weak and not growing well though I take care of it very much?

A: It is due the parasitic infection causing your calf anemic and weak. So regular deworming with anthelmentics is very much essential to save the animals.
To know the proper dose of the anthelmentics you should contact to your nearest vety. Doctor/ KVK personnel.

Q: My cow does not come into heat; it has given birth five months back. What is the reason?

A:-A cow should come into heat within 60 to 90 days of calving, if it does not come into heat within this period it is called as anestrus. There are many factors which cause anestrus. Nutritional factors like underfeeding, mineral and vitamin deficiency are the most common though sometimes hormonal disturbances also cause anestrus which can be cured with hormonal therapy.  The cow should be provided sufficient feed with mineral and vitamin supplements and green grasses.

Q: In milking cows sometimes the udder becomes swollen and hard and milk does not come out from the teat, why?

A: This type of condition of udder in milking cows is called mastitis which is the costliest disease of t he dairy industry today. Immediate treatment with antibiotics is very much essential. Also the cows should have a clean, dry environment which helps to reduce the incidence.

Q: After calving, my cow was unable to stand up. Gradually she stopped feeding and died. Why?

A: the cow was suffering from milk fever/hypocalcaemia, a disease caused by calcium deficiency. The disease is characterized by subnormal temperature, dry muzzle and off fed. If you touch the tip of the ears of the cow you feel it cold. The cow immediately responds to calcium therapy.

Q: What types of poultry birds are good which can be reared by us under backyard system?

A: Some of the improved varieties developed exclusively for backyard farming are: Vanaraja, Giriraja, Girirani, Gramapriya, Krishna J., etc. From the study it is found that Vanaraja variety is very much adaptable in our NE region and very much popular among the people. The birds can be reared for both meat and egg production. In terms of color and hardiness the birds are same with the local birds and have high egg laying capacity. They attain more body weight over the local birds with minimum supplementation of locally available feed ingredients.

Q: Recently my all the poultry birds died suddenly without showing much symptoms. Some birds was having greenish or yellowish diarrhea. What was the reason?

A: Many viral and bacterial diseases cause sudden death of the birds. Among these Ranikhet disease (viral) is the most dreaded. You should protect your birds against these diseases by giving vaccines. You should follow the schedule given below for vaccination and medication of your birds right from the 1st day.

1st day Marek’s disease vaccine (at hatchery) 0.2 ml, s/c
1st to 2nd day Electrolyte 1 g/lit
1st to 6th day Antibiotic + Vitamins Vimeral (5 ml/100 birds)
7th day RDV (F1) vaccine Eye / Nasal drops
14th to 18th days IBD vaccine Drinking water or 1 drop in eye or nostril
21st to 23rd day
42nd to 44th days
Coccidiostate Amprolium powder @0.012% in feed
28th day (or 4th week) RDV (Lasota) vaccine Drinking water
4-6 weeks Infectious Bronchitis Nasal route
7 weeks Fowl Pox 0.5 ml, Feather follicle method
8-10 weeks RDV(R2B) 0.5 ml,S/c
14th week Again Infectious Bronchitis Drinking water
16th week Again IBD 1 ml,S/c

Q: How can I protect my Ducks?

A: You should vaccinate your ducks also against Duck Cholera and Duck Plague. Vaccine against duck cholera is given in the ducklings at age of below 6 weeks (1ml, S/c) and revaccinate at every 2 months interval. It can be given in outbreak also and against duck plague is given at the age of above 6 weeks (0.5ml, S/c) which gives lifelong immunity.

Q: Can I rear some good variety of pigs for more production?

A: Yes, you can rear Hampshire cross (Local X Hampshire) 87.5%which are very good performer in our region. Animal Production Division of ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Umiam has developed an improved pig variety by crossing Khasi local pigs with Hampshire pigs. This pig variety has been extensively tested under Meghalaya agro climatic conditions and found very good. Similarly, an improved pig variety (Tamworth X Jarkhand local) developed by Ranchi Veterinary College was also found to be suitable for fattening purpose under Meghalaya agro climatic conditions.

Q: What are the common diseases in pig and what are the remedies?

A: Swine Fever is the most common disease in pigs causing death of the animals at faster rate. The pigs should be vaccinated against swine fever every year. Vaccination should also be done against FMD. The iron deficiency in piglets of 2 to 4 weeks is very common (known as piglet anaemia). The suffering piglets become dull, weak, lethargic and prolonged period of anaemia may result in death. So iron injection must be given to the piglets at 3rd and 12th day of age.

Q: Half of my goats died showing the symptoms of cough, discharge from nose and diarrhoea. How can I save my other goats?

A: Goats are also infected by many bacterial and viral diseases. The infected goats immediately should be treated with antibiotics. Goats should be vaccinated against Enterotoxaemia, FMD, HS and BQ.

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